What is Thymus Hyperplasia?
Thymus hyperplasia is accompanied by an increase in the number of cells in the cortical and medulla or a violation of the structure of the thymus gland due to the appearance of additional formations (for example, germinal centers).
According to Birich, true hyperplasia is observed in a third of well-somatically developed children of the first year of life, since it is during this period of life that the thymus gland is most functionally loaded.
Causes of Thymus Hyperplasia
Thymus hyperplasia can be associated with a change in the usual structure, which is observed with autoimmune diseases: malignant myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis. So, with malignant myasthenia gravis in 70-80% of cases, an increase in the cerebral layer due to atrophy of the cortical, the emergence of germinal centers characteristic of the lymph nodes, the accumulation of plasma cells around the vessels. With hyperplasia in the gland, forbidden immunocompetent cells are formed that respond to the antigens of their own body and cause the formation of autoantibodies.
Despite the appearance of additional structures, the size of the thymus may not increase.
Thymomegaly, which is observed in some endocrine diseases – thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, Addison’s disease, and in some cases bronchial asthma, should be distinguished from true hyperplasia.
Treatment of Thymus Hyperplasia
Treatment of conditions caused by thymus dysfunction mainly consists in the removal of thymus (thymectomy), therapy with corticosteroid drugs, and diet therapy. Thymus hyperplasia without clinical manifestations, does not require active medical intervention. In such cases, only dynamic observation of patients is necessary.