Causes of Hypervitaminosis A
An overdose of preparations of vitamin A, eating the liver of a polar bear, seal, whale, walrus, containing a large amount of free vitamin.
Pathogenesis during hypervitaminosis A
Hypervitaminosis A is accompanied by inhibition of osteo-and chondrogenesis, destruction of cartilage and bone tissue, osteoporosis and organ calcification, inhibition of proteosynthesis.
Symptoms of Hypervitaminosis A
Acute hypervitaminosis in adults is characterized by headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, photophobia, and possible teratogenic effects of vitamin A.
Acute hypervitaminosis A in children. It is usually observed in infancy with the occasional or erroneous administration of a vitamin in an overdose and is manifested by hydrocephalus, protrusion of a spring, fever, loss of appetite, vomiting, increased pressure of the CSF.
Chronic intoxication in children and adults is accompanied by pigmentation, peeling and cracking of the skin, especially palms and feet, pain in the bones and joints when walking, dryness and fragility of the nails and hair and their loss, loss of appetite and weight loss, insomnia, increased irritability, hepatitis – and splenomegaly, nausea and vomiting.
As a type of hypervitaminosis, carotenemia is secreted – an increased amount of carotene in the blood. It is observed when a large consumption of vegetables and fruits containing carotenoids (oranges, tangerines, carrots and juices from them). In contrast to jaundice, carotenemia is characterized by yellowness of the skin and palmar surfaces of the hand, with paleness of the sclera, and with jaundice, yellowness of the sclera and skin, but paleness of the palmar surfaces of the hand.
Diagnosis of Hypervitaminosis A
Diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A is difficult. For diagnosis, it is necessary to determine the concentration of vitamin A in the serum.
Hypervitaminosis A Treatment
Treatment of hypervitaminosis consists in the abolition of vitamin A preparations. The prognosis is usually favorable, although the symptoms disappear within a few months. With carotenemia, it is necessary to stop eating vegetables and fruits.