What is Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia?
Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is a very rare disorder detected in adolescence or in young people.
Causes of Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia
Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is associated with a slowdown in the assimilation of endogenous and exogenous triglycerides. It increases after taking fats and carbohydrates.
Pathogenesis during Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia
The disease is caused by a slight decrease in lipoprotein lipase activity (unlike hyperchilomicronemia, in which the deficiency of this enzyme is pronounced), is inherited polygenically.
Symptoms of Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia
Clinically, this type of hyperlipoproteinemia is manifested in people over 20 years of age, obesity, eruptive xanthomas are noted, and abdominal pain often occurs. Tolerance to carbohydrates and fats is reduced. Latent or moderate diabetes mellitus is sometimes detected. Coronary heart disease is less common than with type IIa, III, and IV hyperlipoproteinemia.
Diagnosis of Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia
The blood concentration of pre-b-lipoproteins and chylomichrons is increased, the content of triglycerides is significantly increased, the level of cholesterol is normal or slightly higher. Cholesterol coefficient: triglycerides is 0.150.6. The patient’s blood plasma is cloudy, after standing in the refrigerator for 12-24 hours, a creamy layer forms.
Treatment of Type V Hyperlipoproteinemia
Treatment comes down to the pathogenetic correction of metabolic and clinical syndromes.
For patients with primary and secondary hyperlipoproteinemia and normal body weight, a 4-fold meal is recommended, with obesity 5-6-fold, because rare meals contribute to an increase in body weight, a decrease in glucose tolerance, the occurrence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The main calorie intake should be in the first half of the day. for example, with 5 meals a day, the 1st breakfast should be 25% of the daily calories, the 2nd breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner, respectively, 15, 35, 10 and 15%. General strengthening therapy is also carried out, with obesity, sufficient physical activity is necessary.
With type I hyperlipoproteinemia, heparin and other hypolipidemic agents do not have an effect. In pediatric practice, it is preferable to use drugs of a milder action: cholestyramine, clofibrate, etc. In some cases, anorexigenic drugs are prescribed for easier adaptation of the patient to a diet for a short time.
Effective methods of treating alipoproteinemia and hypolipoproteinemia have not been developed.