What is Deficiency (Insufficiency) of Manganese?
Manganese is an element of group VII of the periodic system with atomic number 25. The name comes from it. Manganerz – manganese ore and from lat. Magnes is a magnet. Discovered by U. Gan in 1774 (Sweden).
Manganese is a hard, brittle silver-white metal that oxidizes in air and reacts with water. Manganese ores, manganite, pyrolyusite, ferromanganese nodules are a natural source of manganese.
Causes of Manganese Deficiency (Insufficiency)
Manganese deficiency is one of the most common deviations in the bioelement metabolism of modern man. Manganese deficiency is most often associated with increased psycho-emotional stress on a person, due to the increased “consumption” of manganese to ensure basic neurochemical processes in the central nervous system. Manganese deficiency negatively affects the stability of the membranes of nerve cells and the nervous system as a whole, affects the functions of the brain and other organs and systems. Perhaps people exposed to stress have an increased need for one of the manganese enzymes, which can lead to a greater susceptibility to manganese deficiency.
So far, the only reliable case of deficiency of food manganese in humans has been described, which is associated with prolonged use of a milk mixture that does not contain manganese. The patient noted: weight loss, slower hair and nail growth, dermatitis and hypocholesterolemia. In addition, his black hair acquired a reddish tint and the protein’s coagulation response to vitamin K was disrupted.
In patients with certain types of epilepsy, a decrease in the concentration of manganese in whole blood is noted. Low concentrations of serum manganese, usually in combination with low concentrations of copper and zinc, were found in patients with impaired bone metabolism, which was corrected by the introduction of manganese, copper and zinc into the diet.
The risk of manganese deficiency is increased in people who abuse alcohol.
Causes of Manganese Deficiency in the Body
- Inadequate supply of manganese from the outside (inadequate nutrition, reduced consumption of manganese-rich foods, in particular plant foods).
- Excessive intake of phosphates (soft drinks, canned food).
- Intensive removal of manganese under the influence of excess content in the body of calcium, copper and iron.
- Increased consumption of manganese as a result of psycho-emotional overload in women in the premenopausal period and with menopause.
- Contamination of the body with various toxins (cesium, vanadium).
- Violation of the regulation of manganese metabolism in the body.
Pathogenesis during Manganese Deficiency (Insufficiency)
The well-known biochemical functions of manganese are the activation of enzymes and certain metalloenzymes.
The biological role of manganese Manganese is an essential element for humans and animals. Manganese is found in the organisms of all plants and animals, although its content is usually very small, on the order of thousandths of a percent.
Manganese has a significant effect on the vital activity of living organisms. Manganese is one of the most important bioelements (microelements) and is a component of many enzymes, performing many functions in the body. Manganese actively affects the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. The ability of manganese to enhance the action of insulin and maintain a certain level of cholesterol in the blood is also considered important. In the presence of manganese, the body makes fuller use of fats.
The main biological functions of manganese:
- Manganese is involved in the synthesis and metabolism of neurotransmitters in the nervous system.
- Manganese prevents free radical oxidation, ensures the stability of the structure of cell membranes.
- Manganese ensures the normal functioning of muscle tissue.
- Manganese is involved in the exchange of thyroid hormones (thyroxine).
- Manganese provides the development of connective tissue, cartilage and bones.
- Manganese enhances the hypoglycemic effect of insulin.
- Manganese increases glycolytic activity.
- Manganese increases the rate of fat utilization.
- Manganese lowers lipids in the body.
- Manganese counteracts fatty degeneration of the liver.
- Manganese is involved in the regulation of the exchange of vitamins C, E, group B, choline, and copper.
- Manganese is involved in providing full reproductive function.
- Manganese is necessary for the normal growth and development of the body.
Manganese compounds are primarily ingested.
Absorption of manganese from the diet is supposedly equal to 3-5%. Manganese is absorbed throughout the small intestine. Manganese quickly leaves the bloodstream and is present in tissues mainly in the mitochondria of cells (the “power stations” of the cell in which energy is generated). In increased amounts, it is present in the liver, tubular bones, pancreas, and kidneys. Upon absorption, manganese competes with iron and cobalt. Thus, one of the metals, if its level is high, can exhibit an inhibitory effect on the absorption of others. Manganese is an activator of many enzymes.
Manganese is almost completely excreted in feces, as well as with sweat and urine.
Daily requirement for manganese
The daily need for manganese for adults is 2–5 mg.
Deficiency levels are estimated at 1 mg / day.
Food Sources of Manganese
A lot of manganese is found in rye bread, wheat and rice bran, soybeans, peas, potatoes, beets, tomatoes, blueberries and in some medicinal plants (ledum, three-leaved watch, potentilla, eucalyptus). Very rich in manganese coffee and tea.
Groats are comparatively rich in this microelement (primarily oat and buckwheat). Unrefined cereals, nuts, leafy vegetables, and tea are rich in manganese, while refined grains, meat, and daily foods contain only small amounts of manganese. Thus, diets rich in plant foods supply an average of 8.3 mg of manganese daily, while diets in hospitals deliver less than 0.36–1.78 mg of manganese per day.
Symptoms of Deficiency (Insufficiency) of manganese
The main manifestations of manganese deficiency
- Fatigue, weakness, dizziness, bad mood.
- Deterioration of thinking processes, ability to make quick decisions, memory loss.
- Violations of the contractile function of muscles, a tendency to cramps and cramps, muscle pain, motor disorders.
- Degenerative changes in the joints, a tendency to sprains and dislocations, osteoporosis in the menopause.
- Disorders of skin pigmentation, the appearance of a small scaly rash, vitiligo.
- Growth retardation of nails and hair.
- Decrease in the level of “useful” cholesterol in the blood, impaired glucose tolerance, overweight, obesity.
- Ovarian dysfunction, early menopause, premature aging.
- Immunity disorders, allergic reactions.
- The risk of cancer.
- Development delay in children.
Signs of deficiency in laboratory animals include growth retardation, skeletal disorders, reproductive dysfunction, ataxia in newborns, and defects in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Diagnosis of Deficiency (Insufficiency) of Manganese
Blood plasma and urine are an indicator of the manganese content in the body; the average manganese content in these substrates (in μg / L) is 0.3-1.0 and 0.1-1.5, respectively.
Manganese Deficiency Treatment
With insufficient intake of manganese in the body, it is necessary to increase the amount of foods with a high content in the diet. Manganese-containing dietary supplements for food can be prescribed.
In case of excessive intake of manganese in the body (among workers in production conditions, or from residents of areas adjacent to the enterprise), appropriate protective measures must be taken. In case of poisoning, symptomatic agents are used, chelation therapy is carried out. With an excess level of manganese, the use of cleansing agents (dietary supplements and preparations with drainage properties) may be required. The use of manganese compounds In the form of alloys with iron (ferromanganese) and silicon (silicomanganese), manganese is used in the steel and chemical industries, in the production of animal feed and fertilizers. In medicine, potassium permanganate is widely used as an antiseptic, in the form of aqueous solutions for rinsing, douching, lubricating ulcer and burn surfaces, washing the bladder and urinary tract. In recent years, organic manganese compounds have been used in mineral-vitamin complexes, dietary supplements for food, for the treatment and prevention of various diseases (in nasal sprays in the treatment of allergic rhinitis). Radioactive isotopes of manganese are used for research purposes.