Appetite fulfills the psychological function of realizing the physiological needs of the body in eating. This function of the body provides human life, thanks to it our body makes up for the need for energy, on which depends not only working capacity, but all life.
The role of appetite and nutrition in human life
Appetite regulates the amount of food consumed, depending on how much energy was spent by a person, how vital functions are provided in the body, and how long the last act of eating was. These ingredients affect the power of appetite – it can be familiar, which determines the standard food stigma, or, for example, “brutal”, the person’s code, to feel relief using an unusually large amount of food.
Also on the appetite and hunger can also affect hormonal disorders in the body, so the decrease in endorphins depresses the appetite, which leads to its reduction and in the long run to human exhaustion; other hormones can increase the feeling of hunger, which leads to overeating, weight gain and / or obesity.
Results of prolonged fasting
In our time, fasting can be forced (lack of food) or conscious (the desire to lose weight). In case of fasting for more than 24 hours, people may experience dizziness, muscle weakness, loss of strength and psychological lethargy.
If a person refuses to eat for a longer period, there may be disruptions in the brain, frequent fainting, cognitive impairment, lethargy and dullness of the skin, hair loss and nails, teeth first crumble, and then completely fall out.
Long-term fasting changes the human psyche, it loses interest in anything, memory worsens, the mood is constantly depressed and irritable.
And a complete refusal of food sooner or later leads to the death of a person.
The role of endogenous nutrition
The essence of endogenous nutrition is that when nutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) do not enter the human body, it uses its internal resource and absorbs nutrients from its own tissues. First, the body will consume subcutaneous fatty tissue, then the muscle mass goes on, and after complete exhaustion, the body begins self-destruction, up to a lethal outcome.
Role of artificial nutrition
Artificial nutrition is an internal food intake, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
In case of an objective impossibility of a normal food intake through the mouth (coma, other vegetative state) or a prolonged conscious refusal to eat, when for medical reasons it is impossible to immediately return to normal norms of food intake, use the artificial feeding method – the administration of nutrients intravenously or subcutaneously, or with the help of probes, enemas or fistulas.
Such food can only for a short time replace the normal process of food intake and is exclusively a method of treating various kinds of diseases, including psychological – bulimia, anorexia.
Appetite performs two main functions – it is to inform the person about the need for food intake, and on the other hand to warn about the overabundance of the eaten.
When the body needs food, salivary glands begin to actively work (“drooling”), which is a signal of the readiness of the digestive tract for food intake. If a person is on the verge of overeating, the body speaks about it through the means of belching, feelings of satiety and unwillingness to even see food.
There are other, indirect functions of appetite. So, for example, a good appetite after a disease, indicates a recovery. And because the appetite is closely related to human hormones, it can reduce the sensation of grief and even give joy.
Many functions of appetite are still a mystery for scientists. But it is reliably known that appetite controls the functions and work of all the systems of our body, affects our emotional, psychological and physical state, and with the socialization of man in many ways began to determine this sphere of life.
Appetite of a person determines not only the quantitative component of nutrition, but also its quality content, the so-called eating habits. Most of them were formed in the course of evolution, and to this day they are the basis of nutrition – it is the consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in food, but their distribution and preference for certain products is determined by the state of vital functions of the organism (lack or excess of certain enzymes, hormones in the body).
It is worth noting that this function (appetite) a person is quite able to regulate. If you lose control over your appetite, you should always consult your doctor to avoid serious disorders such as compulsive overeating or excessive fasting, which can subsequently affect the entire life activity of a person. Differences in appetite – from a strong sense of hunger to complete apathy for food – should be alarming and just cause for a trip to the clinic.
What affects the appetite
Since nutrition is the main source of substances necessary for the body, then the appetite entirely depends on the state of the organism and the processes that occur in it.
The level of hormones, their balance, health status, energy expenditure, special standing (for example, pregnancy), food composition – all this and much more determine the functions of appetite, its qualitative and quantitative components.
So when studying the effects on human drugs it was found that eating food, like drugs, activates the zones responsible for pleasure and reward in the brain. This suggests that a lack of appetite can spur an activation of the reward system, which increases the sense of pleasure after eating. Due to this, it is possible to defeat diseases and disorders that cause lack of appetite.
The reverse mechanism works also – the hyperfunction of the pleasure zones with food intake leads to frequent overeating, increased appetite and as a consequence to the development of obesity. In this case, control of pleasure zones will help to overcome compulsive overeating and / or violation of human eating habits.
The level of appetite depends on the properties of food. Scientists have discovered products that can increase appetite and oppress it. Taking into account these qualities of food, you can successfully control your appetite.
Ways to control appetite
- Water – special attention
The correct drinking regime (a glass of water on an empty stomach and at least 2 liters of clean water a day) will help to effectively control the appetite. But it is worth remembering, fizzy and sweet drinks in this regard will not be of use, but will only increase appetite and fill your diet with hidden sugar and carbohydrates.
- Refusal of sharp seasonings
Spicy condiments and spices irritate the mucous membrane of the stomach, which causes an increased secretion of gastric acids and, as a consequence, an increase in appetite.
- Bitter chocolate helps not to overeat
A small amount of dark chocolate, depressing appetite and increase thirst, which helps to maintain the correct drinking regime and not overeat. It is worth noting that milk chocolate or sweet candy will not bring such benefit, but will only increase the desire to eat more sweet and fill the diet with extra calories.
- More fresh fruits and vegetables
Natural fruit contains a significant amount of water, the benefits of which we discussed above, but moreover they have viscous properties, which reduces the desire to eat something. The composition of fruits (low calorie, a rich supply of trace elements and vitamin) allows you to quickly fill the stomach and reduce appetite without harm to the figure. Vegetables also have a similar property, so leaving a plate of your favorite fruits or vegetables in a conspicuous place, you will avoid the temptation to eat a sandwich or any other not very useful snack. Nutritionists, having conducted a number of large-scale studies, selected a number of food products from a huge list of food products, which are particularly effective in reducing appetite, such as pineapples, oranges, grapes, cherries, grapefruit, figs, lemon, blueberries, sea kale and zucchini.
- Herbs that reduce appetite
Flaxseed oil and flaxseed seeds proved to be effective in this regard. Due to the content in them of a significant amount of mucus that envelops the walls of the stomach, appetite decreases, and their laxative effect helps the body to quickly purify. However, the uncontrolled use of these products over time can adversely affect health, since laxatives quickly remove minerals and vitamins from the body.
Among other herbs that suppress appetite nutritionists are:
- Siberian Buzulnik (accelerates metabolism)
- Medicinal angelica (helps with pain in the digestive tract, stagnation in the stomach, heartburn and so on).
- Bubble ficus (restores the balance of fatty acids, minerals and vitamins, speeds up the metabolism).
- Althaeus (envelops the walls of the stomach, thereby reducing appetite, regenerates the tissues of the intestines, relieves inflammation in it, reduces the ability to absorb food for a long time maintaining a sense of satiety).
- Milk Thistle (reduces the amount of fat in the liver, helps restore metabolism, has a laxative effect).
But it is worth remembering that independent use of herbs can also do harm, so before turning to folk medicine, you need to consult a doctor, especially if you have chronic diseases.
Medications to reduce appetite
On the shelves of pharmacies you can see for a long time a variety of drugs to suppress appetite. However, it is worth remembering that, like all medications, medicines to reduce appetite have a number of unpleasant side effects: from allergic reactions to serious disorders in the digestive tract. Therefore, before choosing a drug and starting the course of admission, it is worth to visit your doctor and discuss the feasibility and possible risks of such treatment.
Microcrystalline cellulose – BAA, available in the form of tablets, the course of prima provides: the first few days of 5 tablets per day, followed by a weekly course of 10 tablets per day, then the dosage increases to 15 tablets per day. Use the drug is half an hour before a meal, drink down with a copious amount of water. The instructions state the absence of side effects, but as practice has shown, there may be pain in the gastrointestinal tract, in this case, the reception should be stopped immediately.
Svetloreform plus – use 2 times a day for 1 tablet at the time of food intake. It is forbidden during pregnancy, it is not recommended for children, lactating mothers and people suffering from allergies.
Appetanol – eat 2 times a day for half an hour before meals, drink plenty of water. It is not recommended for children, nursing mothers and people suffering from allergies.
Meridia – consumed 2 times a day for 15 minutes before meals, banned with a strong sense of hunger, the elderly, during pregnancy and people with mental disorders (for example, schizophrenia).
Preparation XLS duo slim and shape – use 1 time per day 1 tablet, drinking a considerable amount of water. It is forbidden during pregnancy, to persons under 15 years of age, and to people suffering from allergy symptoms.
Garcinia forte – use 2 times a day for 1 tablet with food or drink a glass of water. It is not recommended for lactating mothers and people suffering from allergies.
Medicines of the Turboslim group have a particularly high demand among consumers. So, the drug “Control appetite” is drunk 1 time per day at any convenient time of the day, while it significantly depresses the appetite. And the “Calorie Blocker” is shown to be taken once a day, just like any time of the day, washed down with a glass of water. But these drugs have a number of contraindications, such as: age younger than 15 years, the presence of allergies and personal intolerance of the components of medicines.
Reduxin – use 1 tablet a day at any convenient time of day. Contraindications for admission: heart disease, mental disorders, IHD, low or high blood pressure.
Aminofilin – drink 250 grams of the drug once a day. It is against people with peptic ulcer, thyroid disorders, epileptics, people with tachyarrhythmias, and children under six years old.